Pain is divided into two according to the process of occurrence. If it has a sudden onset, it is called ‘acute pain’. Acute pain is usually caused by an injury or a disability-related problem that is easier to treat. If it is out of a situation such as the injury, the pain is expected to disappear after the injury has healed.
Chronic pains occur mostly due to an underlying chronic disease. Generally, its treatment is applied depending on the underlying problem. Pain that lasts more than 3 months and often recurs is considered chronic pain. Chronic pain is not always caused by an injury. In other words, the nerve cells are not the damaged area and can send pain signals. In such cases, the total approach is very important.
Chronic pain, as a medical definition, is a biopsychosocial condition that is perceived by pain receptors and is neurochemically transported to the upper centers and interpreted here. Contrary to popular belief, pain is not harmful but a useful warning system. Because it tries to prevent further damage to our body by warning us.
Physiotherapy treatments and rest are usually sufficient for pain caused by injury or physical trauma. But the perspective on the treatment of chronic pain is slightly different. Drugs are the first treatment approach for chronic pain. In addition to the use of medication, psychological and physiotherapy treatments can be added as supportive therapy. If the pain does not improve with these treatments, the last option is surgery. Pain is tried to be eliminated with surgical procedures.
The most commonly used medication in drug treatment is analgesics, that is, painkillers, and the most misused drugs are these. When choosing analgesics, pain medications, the pharmacological effect, the severity of the pain, and the psychological state of the patient should be considered.
If we look at the physiological part of the general treatment in chronic pain, it is discussed in three parts. Suppression of the general pain pathway is provided with stimulating methods. It is the direct and controlled administration of pain medication to certain parts of the body, which is especially used in cancer pain. They are ‘destructive methods’, which are the relief of pain by creating lesions on certain points of the pathway from the first peripheral end of the pain sensation to the center.
If medications, physiotherapy, psychological treatments, stimulant treatments do not work, surgical intervention should be performed in the treatment of pain.