Vertigo is a rotational movement. This can also be described as the feeling that the items are spinning around an axis around the patient, or the patient’s feeling that the items are rotating around the items while the eyes are closed. Vertigo is a motion hallucination and the perception of motion that is not there. Vertigo is not a disease in itself, but can occur as a symptom of many diseases. According to estimates, about 5 to 10 percent of the world’s population is acquainted with vertigo. We realize its existence only when it is corrupted. So what are the structures that maintain our balance? As we try to understand the sense of balance, we realize how complex it is.

Department of otolaryngology and neurology

Balance; It is a sense that is formed as a result of the senses coming from the muscles, bones and joints that carry our body, and the collection and analysis of all the information coming from our inner ears and eyes by the cerebellum and brain. In case of dizziness as a result of a disorder in this complex structure, all these areas should be reviewed in order to find the cause in the patient. Therefore, in order to diagnose a patient with vertigo, first of all, an evaluation by otorhinolaryngology and neurology should be performed, but in some cases, a multi-disciplinary approach is needed, including internal medicine, ophthalmology and sometimes physical therapy departments.

What are the symptoms of vertigo?

The most obvious symptom is dizziness and is usually caused by a problem with the balance system in the inner ear.
Feeling of pressure in the ear with dizziness due to ear diseases
hearing loss
ear discharge
Abnormal movements of the eyes may be observed.
How is vertigo diagnosed?
Due to the nature of the disease, the diagnosis of vertigo can only be made by exclusion methods while the cause of vertigo is being investigated, and patients may have to be examined by many departments mentioned above and a wide variety of tests performed until the diagnosis is made. The first thing to do in a patient who presents with the complaint of sudden-onset dizziness is to determine whether this condition is central (brain origin) or peripheral (extra-cerebral). Peripheral origins generally have a better prognosis.

Peripheral vertigo causes are mostly caused by inner ear and middle ear diseases. However, a central vertigo may require emergency intervention such as cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, and even intensive care. After the cause of vertigo is found, the treatment covers a wide range from simple head movements that the physician will make the patient do during the examination, to various medical treatments and, if necessary, to surgical treatment.

Types of vertigo
There are three most common types of vertigo:

1- Displacement of in-ear crystals
Small calcium and mineral crystals in the inner ear are displaced by stress, extreme fatigue, or a trauma. These crystals scattered in the snail area in the ear cause severe dizziness in the person. If the crystals are in the left ear, when turning to the left, they are on the right, but when turning to the right, a severe dizziness is experienced. Although this situation makes the person very uncomfortable, fortunately this dizziness lasts for about 15-20 seconds. From time to time, the patient may not understand what is happening and think that an earthquake is happening. There are even those who think that they will die when this dizziness occurs. In these people, the diagnosis is revealed by the crystal test performed by an otolaryngologist. With a special method called maneuver therapy, the crystals are replaced.

2- An increase in the balance fluid in the inner ear
The increase in the balance fluid in the inner ear causes vertigo. Excessive salt consumption, insufficient fluid intake and wrong eating habits can result in an increase in this fluid. In addition to dizziness, problems such as ringing in the ears and hearing loss may accompany the symptoms. Salt restriction is applied first in the treatment. The patient is being treated with medication. In cases where these treatments do not respond, cortisone can be applied.

3- Viruses causing inflammation in the balance nerve
Airborne viruses can cause inflammation of the balance nerve. In this case, where severe and long-term symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, and vomiting are experienced, the patient may be hospitalized for a few days for treatment. It can take up to 15 days for complaints to end completely.

How is vertigo prevented?
7 tips to help prevent vertigo:

1- Avoid stress
Stress is one of the most important factors that cause vertigo formation. Therefore, take time for yourself as much as possible and remove stress factors from your life.

2- Strengthen your immune system
eat healthy
Do not include frozen and ready-to-eat foods in your diet. Consume natural and organic products. In this way, you will contribute to the strengthening of your immune system.

start the day with eggs
Eggs contain many minerals and Omega 3. If you do not have any other ailments, eat 1 or 2 village eggs every morning for breakfast.

Eat walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts and peanuts
Eat a handful of nuts a day.

for milk
Choose daily milk instead of long-lasting canned milk.

Do not stay away from protein-containing foods
If you do not have any accompanying disease, do not be afraid to eat red meat.

3- Sunbathe
Vitamin D is very important for a healthy body. Studies show that 70 out of 100 people in our country have vitamin D deficiency. Therefore, sunbathe as much as possible. Remember, the body is a balance, and when this balance is disrupted, vertigo occurs.

4- Reduce salt
Salt causes an increase in fluid in the inner ear and can trigger vertigo. Therefore, reduce the salt.

5- Drink plenty of fluids
Drink plenty of water to maintain the water-salt balance in the body. But stay away from beverages like tea and coffee. Because such drinks can also cause an increase in fluid in the inner ear.

6- Prefer calm sports
As in every field, sports have a great importance in vertigo. Include sports, which is an indispensable part of a healthy life, in your life. However, stay away from heavy sports that involve sudden movements.

7- Avoid sudden movements
Do not turn your head too fast, stay away from the toys in the amusement parks, do not drive fast. These situations, which cause sudden movements, can cause the ear crystals to dislodge.

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