In the normal period, the production and delivery time of a vaccine is 10-15 years. Thanks to the abundance of studies on the characteristics of the virus with today’s technology, this period has been reduced to a lesser extent. It was possible to see this example in coronavirus vaccines. Currently, there are more than 150 coronavirus vaccine studies worldwide. From this coronavirus vaccine American Pfizer/Biontech and Moderna, Chinese Sinovac, Russian Sputnik V and Oxford University’s AstraZeneca The vaccines they produced in cooperation with the company continue to be applied. So, which of these coronavirus vaccines are inactivated vaccines, which ones are mRNA vaccines? Here are the techniques used by companies producing Covid-19 vaccines.
WHAT IS INACTIVE(DEAD) VACCINE?
Vaccines are divided into live and inactivated vaccines. Inactivated vaccine means dead vaccine. Inactivated vaccines are a long-established and reliable method. Polio and some types of flu vaccines have been produced using this technique. Inactivated vaccines are produced by using heat, chemicals and radiation to prevent viruses from replicating themselves. Although these viruses cannot reproduce, they can trigger the immune system. The duration of immunity is short compared to live vaccines. The biggest advantages of this vaccine are that it is a tried and known technique and can be used even in people with weakened immune systems. The biggest disadvantage is the necessity of using more than one dose due to its low effectiveness.
WHAT DOES mRNA VACCINE MEAN?
Inactivated vaccines have been used for many years in Turkey for different diseases. The mRNA vaccine, on the other hand, is a vaccine that acts genetically and can be produced in a shorter time. This vaccine is prepared with a newly applied technology in humans. The results of the studies on developing antibodies and cellular immunity in the early period are successful, but the results in the medium and long term are unknown. The reason for this is that it was used for the first time with the mRNA method in the epidemic. Messenger RNA is a molecule that carries the chemical code corresponding to the amino acid sequence of a protein to be synthesized. mRNA is synthesized by transcription from a DNA template and carries protein-coding information to the protein synthesis site, the ribosome.
WHAT DOES VIRAL VECTOR VACCINE MEAN?
Viral vector vaccines mainly provide immunity by weakening viruses and eliminating their ability to cause disease. Although the virus that enters the body does not cause disease, it triggers the immune system to produce antibodies. This technique, which is one of the oldest methods used in vaccines, was used in smallpox vaccine and still remains one of the most effective vaccines.
The biggest advantage of viral vector vaccines is that very specific antigens can be injected into the body, so the body’s response is very close to the target, and often a single dose of vaccine is sufficient for long-term immunity. The disadvantage of these vaccines is that the current immune system can recognize these vectors. So it can result in the body responding directly to the vector and not the antigen. This can reduce the effectiveness of the vaccine.
WHICH ARE INACTIVE, mRNA AND VIRAL VECTOR CORONAVIRUS VACCINES?
According to the table, the Chinese vaccine “Sinovac” is inactive. It is produced by the American Pfizer/Biontech and the USA Moderna mRNA vaccine technique. Russia’s “Sputnik V” and Oxford University’s “AstraZeneca” are viral vectors.
WHAT KIND OF VACCINE IS TURKEY USING?
Biontech and Sinovac vaccine, which will be active in Turkey, is being applied.
Does the mRNA Biontech vaccine have side effects, what are they?