Exp. Dr. Ebru Karcı evaluated the risk factors for colon cancer, which is common in the society. Dr. Karcı stated that according to the Ministry of Health data, colon cancer is the third most common disease among men and women and said, “In general, it is an advanced age disease with an average age of 63 years. Colorectal cancer is included in screening programs in our country as well as in the world. The aim of screening programs is to detect polyps and cancer that have not yet turned into cancer at an early stage. Men and women between the ages of 50 and 70 in the screening program; Occult blood test in stools every 2 years, colonoscopy every 10 years; If colonoscopy cannot be performed, rectosigmoidoscopy is recommended every 5 years, ”he said.
YOUR FAMILY HISTORY DETERMINES YOUR CANCER RISK
Dr. Karcı pointed out that those in the risky group should start screening early, and continued as follows:
“Those who have previously been diagnosed with adenomatous polyps or colorectal cancer, those with a diagnosis of Crohn’s and Ulcerative Colitis, those with a family history of colorectal cancer or polyp, those with genetic inherited diseases such as adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Lynch Syndrome are included in high risk groups. Screening should be started at an earlier age in these people. According to studies on colon cancer and nutrition, eating with a weight of red meat, processed meat (sausage, soudjouk, bacon, smoked meat) and alcohol consumption cause an increase in cancer risk. Overweight or obesity increases the risk of colorectal cancer. In studies on smoking, it is thought that it may cause an increase in colon cancer. In addition, it has been determined that consuming foods rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, chicken, fish and grains reduces the risk. Moderate activities for at least 5 days a week for 30 minutes or more are among the measures that can be taken against cancer, such as brisk walking and cycling on flat terrain. “
DIFFERENT SYMPTOMS OF TUMORS ON THE RIGHT OR LEFT
Pointing out that different symptoms are seen in colon cancer depending on the location of the tumor, Dr. Karcı said, “Colon cancer can occur without any symptoms. Left colon tumors can cause bleeding, change in stool habits, constipation, diarrhea attacks, or intestinal obstruction. Right colon tumors can often give symptoms with anemia, mass and weight loss. As with any cancer, there is a stage first in order to determine the treatment method and to learn the course of the disease. Stage 0 is the earliest stage of cancer. Cancer tissue is traced inside the innermost layer of the colon wall, the mucosa. Endoscopic removal is sufficient; there is no need for additional treatment. In stage 1, tumor cells reached the submucosa layer under the mucosa from the layers of the colon wall or further advanced to the muscle layer. However, no tumor was observed in any lymph node. In stage 2, cancer cells have retained all layers of the colon walls and can spread to surrounding tissues. But cancer is not observed in any lymph node, ”he said.
TREATMENT METHODS AVAILABLE BY STAGE
Dr. Karcı gave the following information about phases 3 and 4:
“The most important feature of Stage 3 is that the cancer tissue is observed in the lymph nodes around the colon or in the tissues close to the lymph nodes. Stage 4 is the last stage of colon cancer. At this stage, cancer has spread to other organs besides the colon and lymph nodes. Although colon cancers can spread to every organ, they most frequently metastasize to the liver and lungs. Treatments that can be done according to the stages of the disease are systemic, such as surgery, chemotherapy, targeted therapies, immunotherapy; Local treatments such as radiotherapy, hyperthermia intraperitoneal chemotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolization, transarterial radioembolization, hepatic arterial infusion. Treatment in early stage colon cancer is surgery and reinforcing chemotherapy, which we call adjuvant, depending on the stage or the risk of recurrence. In advanced stage tumors, combination chemotherapy with double or triple drugs is recommended. At this stage, targeted drugs and immunotherapies can be used alone or in combination with chemotherapy by evaluating the location of the disease, genetic and pathological characteristics of the tumor. Targeted therapies are used in conjunction with other cancer treatments to cause cancer cell death. Some targeted therapies prevent the growth signal from reaching the cancer cell, while others reduce the feeding of the cancer cell through the blood. These treatments are decided by looking at the mutation analysis in the patient’s tumor tissue.