Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the prostate gland of men. The prostate gland is a walnut-sized gland just below the bladder and contributes to the structure of the semen fluid. Some types of prostate cancer develop slowly and may not cause serious harm. However, some types, especially those that start at a young age, are more aggressive and can spread quickly.
Who is it seen, what are the symptoms?
The development of prostate cancer increases rapidly after the age of the patient, after the 50s and especially after the 70s. It is inherited and increases the risk of prostate cancer in men. The risk increases 2-4 times in men with prostate cancer in their father or brother. Hormones play an important role in this disease. Especially with excessive consumption of fats, the amount of testosterone in the body increases. This can accelerate prostate cancer growth.
In the early stages, prostate cancer may have no symptoms at all. When the disease progresses, frequent urination, difficulty in urinating, weak or intermittent urine flow, pain or burning sensation during urination or ejaculation may occur, especially at night.
What are the diagnostic methods?
Some screening tests can be used for early diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, tests can sometimes detect slow-growing cancers that do not need to be treated. Tests should be done after the age of 40 with doctor’s recommendation. Tests are especially important for men in the risk group. It can be diagnosed by rectal examination and PSA assay scans.
What is the surgical treatment with radical prostatectomy?
In the treatment of prostate cancer that does not spread, surgical removal of the prostate is performed by radical prostatectomy surgery. It can be applied as open or closed technique.
The closed laparoscopic method is widely preferred. The operation is performed under general anesthesia with tiny incisions made in the groin area under the belly button, and long, thin instruments are inserted into the incisions. The surgeon puts a thin tube inside one of the incisions with a video camera (laparoscope) and tools that go through the others. This helps the surgeon to see inside during the procedure. The operation is performed under general anesthesia. A small incision is made under the belly button.
Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy can also be performed using a surgical robotic system. The surgeon performs the operation by moving the robotic arm while sitting on a computer monitor next to the operating table. This procedure requires special equipment and training.
In prostate cancer surgery, while the prostate is removed, it is ensured that the structures that are used to keep urine are not damaged and the nerves are protected.