It mixes the nutrients that come to the stomach with the liquid with high acid content and kneads it with strong muscle fibers and turns it into a soup we call chyme. With this high acid content, it protects us against most microorganisms taken with food. General Surgery Specialist Prof. Dr. Fahri Yeti┼čir gave information on the subject.

What is stomach cancer?

Stomach cancer usually consists of the mucous layer on the inner surface of the stomach and is called adenocarcinoma.

What are the symptoms of stomach cancer?

Stomach cancers usually show late symptoms. Although the signs and symptoms of stomach cancers vary slightly depending on the location of the cancer, the main symptoms are as follows.

Fatigue, feeling bloated after eating, feeling full after eating a small amount of food
Heartburn and pain, severe indigestion, nausea and vomiting, unexplained weight loss

What are the causes of stomach cancer?

Like most cancers, stomach cancer begins when an error (mutation) occurs in the DNA found in the cell nucleus. This mutation causes the cell to lose control and grow and reproduce rapidly. Cancer cells that accumulate invade nearby structures and form tumors. Later, cancer cells can detach from the tumor and spread to other tissues to spread throughout the body.

What are stomach cancer risk factors?

Gastric cancer is more common in those with reflux disease, obese people and smokers. There is a strong correlation between diets rich in smoked and pickled foods and stomach cancer. A poor diet in terms of fruits and vegetables. Eating foods contaminated with fungi called aflatoxins. Family history of stomach cancer, helicobacter pylori infection, long-term stomach inflammation, pernicious anemia and stomach polyps are also risk factors.

What can be done to prevent stomach cancer?

Regular exercise, eating more fruits and vegetables, not smoking, and reducing the consumption of salty and smoked foods reduce the risk of stomach cancer.

How is stomach cancer diagnosed?

With a camera in the form of a thin tube (endoscopy), the stomach is entered through the mouth, and a small piece of tissue can be taken if necessary (biopsy). Imaging methods such as ultrasound, tomography and MRI can also be used for diagnosis.

How is the spread (stage) of stomach cancer determined?

Staging is very important because treatment is planned accordingly. CT and positron emission tomography (PET) can often be included after a good physical examination to stage gastric cancer. It can be used for other tests if necessary. If it is caught at an early stage, the treatment has a better chance of being successful and getting rid of the cancer.

What are stomach cancer treatment methods?

The treatment options available to you for stomach cancer depend on the stage of your cancer, your general health and your preferences.

Surgery: The goal of gastric cancer surgery is to remove all of the stomach cancer and, if possible, some healthy tissue around it and the lymphatics of the stomach. Removing part of the stomach (subtotal gastrectomy). Removing the entire stomach (total gastrectomy).

Radiation therapy: In stomach cancer, radiation therapy can be used before surgery to shrink the tumor so that it can be removed more easily (neoadjuvant radiation). Radiation therapy can also be used after surgery to kill cancer cells that may remain around your stomach (adjuvant radiation).

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is a drug therapy that uses chemicals to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs travel throughout the body, killing cancer cells that may have spread beyond the stomach. Chemotherapy can be used before or after surgery. Chemotherapy is often combined with radiation therapy.
Medicines used in targeted therapy: Targeted therapy uses drugs that attack specific points in cancer cells or direct your immune system to kill cancer cells (immunotherapy). Targeted drugs are often used in conjunction with standard chemotherapy drugs.

Supportive (palliative) care: Palliative care is specialized medical care focused on relieving pain and other symptoms of serious illnesses. It can be used while receiving aggressive treatments such as palliative care, surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Researchers around the world have focused on increasing the effectiveness of targeted therapies to eradicate cancer.

There are two things we can do with stomach cancer; The first is to keep ourselves away from risk factors that cause stomach cancer as much as possible. Second, to get the opportunity to be diagnosed early, by consulting a doctor as soon as symptoms appear.

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