Instructor See. Aynur Karakaya stated that anesthesia is the destruction of sensation or movement in the whole or a certain part of the body of humans and animals, before any surgical intervention or examination, and said that it is applied in three ways as general, regional and local anesthesia.
“EVERY TYPE OF ANESTHESIA HAS ITS OWN RISKS”
Expressing that general anesthesia is used with the concepts of sleep or fainting, Karakaya noted that fainting is defined as the decrease in blood flow to the brain and then the loss of consciousness of the person. For this reason, Karakaya underlined that instead of expressing anesthesia as fainting, its analogy with sleep is a more accurate expression.
Karakaya continued his words as follows:
“In general and regional anesthesia, both types of anesthesia have their own risks and may develop depending on the general condition of the patient. When the studies are examined, it is seen that general anesthesia and regional anesthesia are not different from each other in terms of the risk of patient loss. Especially in the postoperative recovery period, regional anesthesia, as it is called in the regional or medical language, is considered better in terms of comfort.”
“THE ANESTHESIA MUST BE hung for 7-8 hours”
Emphasizing the importance of being on an empty stomach before receiving anesthesia, Karakaya said, “Anesthesia can cause serious damage to the lungs, especially in the initial and awakening stages, as a result of the vomiting of the patients and the escape of the stomach contents into the lungs. In order to minimize these risks, it is recommended that patients fast for approximately 7-8 hours before anesthesia. This period is extended in some cases. Also; During surgery and anesthesia, there may be a slowdown in bowel movements. In this respect, it is important for patients to stay hungry,” he said.
“PREPARATION IS MADE ACCORDING TO THE PATIENT’S ALLERGIC STORY”
Expressing that there is no specific test showing allergy to anesthetic substances, Karakaya emphasized that some patients may be allergic to anesthetic drugs and said, “When the patient’s medical history is taken, the patient is asked whether he has allergies. In patients with an allergic history, possible risks are calculated and preparations are made accordingly. With these preparations, risks can be minimized. In addition, the drugs and equipment that must be kept in the areas where anesthesia is applied are sufficient to intervene in unexpected allergic reactions that may develop. The anesthesia team consists of people who have received sufficient training in this subject.
Referring to the difficulties encountered in anesthesia applications in smokers, Karakaya said, “Smoking impairs oxygen transport in the blood, tissue oxygen use and adequate oxygenation of the tissues. As a result, both the risk of heart attack increases and the healing of wounds is delayed. In smokers, narrowing of the airways is more common during the initial and awakening phases of anesthesia. In addition, some of the changes that have occurred in the airways can return after smoking cessation, even if full recovery is not achieved. Any time it is not consumed is in favor of the patient. The ideal for a smoker is to quit smoking completely. Even if it cannot be left completely, it is necessary to leave at least a period before the operation.”
FOR WARM WATER TO PREVENT THROAT IRRITATION AFTER SURGERY
Karakaya, who advises against post-operative sore throats, said, “A tube is placed in the trachea to ensure airway patency during surgery for patients receiving general anesthesia. At the end of the operation, the tube is removed while the patient is awakened. This tube can cause irritation to the respiratory tract. Due to irritation, patients may experience problems such as cough, sore throat and hoarseness. These complaints are seen especially in the first days after surgery. These discomforts can last from a few hours to a few days. It usually goes away on its own without the need for any treatment. Keeping the throat moist by using warm drinks and taking plenty of fluids helps to improve the pain and hoarseness earlier.
“THE DENTAL AND PROSTHESIS MUST BE REMOVED”
Saying that dentures and prostheses should be removed before anesthesia is applied, Karakaya said, “At the initial stage of anesthesia, it should be removed to avoid damage while the tube is placed in the trachea. In addition, if there is a tooth holding the denture and prosthesis or loosening, this should be told to the anesthesiologist. Because, in the same way, even if maximum care is taken during the tube placement process, problems such as damage and dislocation may occur. In such a case, preoperative fixation or extraction of the loosening tooth is appropriate. Under normal conditions, healthy teeth are not damaged in these procedures.
“WAKE UP DURING THE SURGERY IS NOT THE ISSUE”
Karakaya said that if sufficient depth of anesthesia is provided, it is not possible for the patient to wake up in the middle of the operation and said, “A certain amount of sleepiness can be created with some sedative drugs given intravenously in patients who are administered regional anesthesia. Thus, the patient is not affected by the processes and conversations around him. However, in some patients, after regional anesthesia is fully provided, the patient does not want these sedative drugs. In this case, the patient can communicate with those around him. However, the patient cannot see the operation area thanks to a visor placed in between.