Assoc. Dr. Yaşar Tuna stated that celiac disease is the most common disease among congenital immune diseases. Stating that one out of every 100 people in the society has celiac disease that occurs with sensitivity to the protein called gluten found in wheat, barley, oats and rye, Assoc. Dr. Tuna noted that the disease can be seen in all age groups. Assoc. Dr. Tuna, Turkey, often with high gluten consumption habits of the disease in Africa and the least that Japan’s consumption is rare, he said.
MEDITERRANEAN-TYPE NUTRITION AND INCREASED GLUTEN CONSUMPTION
Stating that in recent years, the abandonment of the Mediterranean diet with a focus on vegetables and olive oil and consuming more than 20 grams of gluten per day caused a significant increase in the disease. Dr. Yaşar Tuna added that the amount of gluten, which increased with the development of new technological seeds, also caused an increase in the number of patients diagnosed. Emphasizing that the symptoms of the disease are different in each patient, Assoc. Dr. Yaşar Tuna stated that for this reason, physicians also have difficulties in making a diagnosis.
THE SYMPTOMS OF THE DISEASE VARY BY AGE
Reminding that the antibody developed by the body against the protein called gluten in celiac disease causes damage in the small intestines, and it can be seen clinically in intestinal and extra-intestinal or combined forms, Assoc. Dr. Tuna said the following:
“The intestinal form of celiac disease is mostly characterized by diarrhea, loss of appetite, abdominal distension and growth retardation in children younger than 3 years old. In older children and adults, it manifests itself with diarrhea, bloating, constipation, abdominal pain and weight loss. Celiac disease should also be considered in irritable bowel syndrome, which manifests as constipation or changes in bowel habits, bloating, nausea and vomiting. Because the symptoms can be confused. “
ANEMIA MAY DEVELOP
Stating that extraintestinal symptoms are common in children and adults, Assoc. Dr. Tuna said, “Anemias develop due to iron deficiency caused by intestinal inflammation, folic acid or vitamin B12 deficiency. “It causes osteopenia (decrease in bone density) or osteoporosis (osteoporosis) in 70 percent of patients due to the influence of calcium and vitamin D absorption,” he said.
Stating that celiac disease causes growth retardation and short stature in children, Assoc. Dr. Yaşar Tuna noted that other findings were dental problems, oral aphthous lesions, increased liver function and neurological symptoms, and impairment in reproductive functions.
NO SYMPTOMS IN ONE FIVE OF PATIENTS
Stating that non-classical signs and symptoms were observed in half of the patients, and 30 percent of them had classic symptoms, Assoc. Dr. “No symptoms are observed in one fifth of the patients,” Tuna said.
Stating that the most important diagnostic method is examination of intestinal mucosa changes with endoscopic duodenal biopsy and blood serological tests, Assoc. Dr. Yaşar Tuna said, “Since blood serological tests alone do not have 100% evidence value, duodenal biopsy is absolutely necessary. “The presence of symptoms, the presence of serological antibodies, genetic predisposition and the presence of intestinal damage indicate celiac disease,” he said.
Explaining that gluten-free diet is the only treatment method in celiac disease, Assoc. Dr. Yaşar Tuna said, “These patients should not consume grain products such as wheat, oats, rye and barley.”