Kidney cancer is among the top 10 most common cancers in western countries. In Turkey, the incidence (2.2% of all cancers) and death (1.6% of all cancers) is ranked 15th in frequency. It is more common in older people and twice as often in men. Obesity and smoking are prominent causes of kidney cancer. Kidney cancers can generally be seen between the ages of 45-85, but the most common diagnosis is between the ages of 60-70.
Kidney cancer often does not cause any symptoms in the beginning.
Turkish Urology Association President Prof. Dr. Isa Özbey: “Risk factors of kidney cancers in order of frequency are tobacco use, advanced age and male gender, high-calorie diet and fried foods, overweight, high blood pressure, patients undergoing dialysis, all organ transplants, some chemicals (cadmium, arsenic, trichlorethylene). ) exposure, genetic risk factors (von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome, Birth-Hugh Dube Syndrome, etc.) and radiation exposure, ”he said.
Saying that kidney cancer often does not cause any symptoms at the beginning, Prof. Dr. Isa Özbey continued his words as follows: “Most of the time, blood in the urine (hematuria) after the tumor has spread, low back pain that develops for no reason, abdominal swelling, weakness, loss of appetite, unwarranted weight loss, unwarranted and ongoing fever, anemia, high blood pressure various symptoms such as occur. In order to diagnose the disease, the palpable mass is evaluated by physical examination, blood and urine tests are performed.
Imaging methods (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, intravenous pyelogram, intravenous urography) allow the examination of the kidneys and all surrounding structures and to detect the spread. The anatomy of the intrarenal vessels is revealed by MR angiography. Some kidney tumors grow entirely within the kidney. In these patients, MR angiography helps surgical planning by mapping the vessels feeding the renal tumor. Whole body bone scintigraphy is performed to evaluate the spread to the bones. In rare cases, in cases with cancer risk in imaging with needle biopsy, pathological evaluation is performed and treatment is planned. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is less effective in diagnosis than other cancers. “
Approximately 90% of kidney cancers are kidney cell cancers.
Approximately 90% of kidney cancers are kidney cell cancers. Prof. Dr. İsa Özbey: “If the disease is not at an advanced stage when it is detected, surgical removal of the mass or kidney by the urologist and then regular follow-up will be sufficient. If surgical treatment cannot be applied due to additional diseases, ablation methods or angiographic occlusion of the vessels feeding the mass (embolization) are applied to the masses in appropriate size and location by using very high or very low temperatures in various ways. In advanced stage diseases, even if the disease has spread, removal of the kidney can reduce the patient’s complaints such as pain and bleeding and prolong life, ”he said.
Regular screening is also very important in kidney cancer
Prof. Dr. İsa Özbey: “Patients with kidney cell cancer who have no chance of surgical treatment do not benefit from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, the disease is controlled to a certain extent with targeted and combined immune system-enhancing treatments that have been put into practice in recent years.
After the appropriate treatment, the follow-up of the patients is performed by blood tests taken at time intervals determined by the doctor, and abdominal (ultrasonography, computed tomography or MR) and lung (x-ray or tomography) imaging.
Kidney cancers grow slowly and usually do not show symptoms, therefore, in order not to miss the chance of early diagnosis and treatment, but without waiting for the symptoms of the advanced stage, detailed health checks should be made at regular intervals (once a year at the latest) and if kidney cancer is diagnosed incidentally. a urology specialist should be consulted, ”he said.