Bone marrow is responsible for blood production in the body. Red blood cells, white blood cells, thrombocytes are produced by the bone marrow. Anemia can develop when there is a problem in the bone marrow, when the nutrients required for the production of red blood cells are not taken, or when the child’s iron need increases. If the hemoglobin in the red blood cells is low for age and gender, this condition is called anemia. The hemoglobin in red blood cells is a molecule responsible for carrying oxygen to tissues.
When hemoglobin is low, enough oxygen cannot be transported to tissues in the body. This situation can manifest itself with the following symptoms in children:
The child’s inability to actively move around with other friends
Getting tired quickly while playing games or running, climbing stairs
Yellow or earthy skin color
Increased heart rate in physical activity
Lack of concentration
Numbness in hands and feet
Insufficient intake of iron-rich foods can cause iron deficiency anemia in children. Child; If he does not consume enough foods such as red meat, lentils, dried beans, black grape molasses, anemia may develop. Anorexia increases in an anemic child.
The child eats less and his anemia deepens. Children with one or more of the symptoms should definitely be taken to a pediatric hematologist. These children should definitely have a complete blood count test; If iron deficiency anemia is detected, it should be treated promptly.
Iron deficiency anemia can be seen in babies in the first two years. Iron deficiency anemia during infancy and early childhood delays psychomotor and cognitive development and negatively affects the level of intelligence. Children younger than 2 years of age with iron deficiency have problems with adaptation and balance. These children behave more withdrawn and timid.
The storage iron that babies take from their mothers is sufficient for 4-6 months from birth. However, iron deficiency may develop in babies who cannot get enough iron after this period. Therefore, at the age of 5-6 months for breastfed babies; Iron supplementation should be started at the age of 4 months in those who do not take breast milk. Otherwise, babies who cannot get enough iron may develop iron deficiency anemia at the age of one.
Iron supplements are recommended to prevent this situation. At a dose of 1 mg / kg / day after 4-6 months for term babies; Drops containing elemental iron at a dose of 2 mg / kg / day should be started after 2 months for preterm babies born under 2500 gr.
It is recommended to continue iron supplementation until the age of 1 year. Nevertheless, a complete blood count should be performed in all babies between the ages of 9-12 months and it should be investigated whether the babies need iron. Iron deficiency anemia is also common in adolescence. Depending on the growth, the need for iron increases during this period. Therefore, in terms of iron deficiency, complete blood count and peripheral smear should be performed in adolescents.
Peripheral smear is a reliable laboratory method that provides useful information in the diagnosis of blood diseases. It is one of the cheapest and classical methods that can be used in the determination of anemia and its type. A drop of blood is spread on a special glass called slide and stained with special dyes and examined under a microscope by a hematology specialist. Thus, the type of anemia can be easily determined.