Pointing out that the inactivity experienced during the stay at home during the pandemic period weakened the living bones, Dr. Esra Mustafa said, “Therefore, the risk has increased more. Osteoporosis is a preventable disease, so we need to pay attention to our diet and daily exercise routine. Otherwise, we may face bone fractures even while doing routine activities such as standing or walking, ”he said.
The bones that are the hardest among the tissues that make up the body; It is of great importance for our health with many functions such as protecting organs and providing mobility. These structures, which are more durable in youth, can become weaker as the age progresses. Not only age factors, but also some diseases and environmental factors negatively affect bone health. The most important of these is Osteoporosis, which is also called bone thief.
A Silent Disease
Stating that 80 percent of osteoporosis cases are women, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Specialist Dr. Esra Mustafa said “Osteoporosis is a silent disease and may not show any symptoms. Therefore, diagnosis is very difficult in a patient who has not had a fracture. The first reason for admission to the hospital may be a fracture. Patients with previous fractures have an increased risk of having a second fracture. Osteoporosis is not a common pain disease. Pain occurs due to fractures. The first complaint of the patient may be shortening of height due to unnoticed vertebral collapse fractures. Decreases in height in the spinal bones are responsible for this. Since osteoporosis may remain silent for a long time, it is extremely important to know and question the risk factors and to treat risky individuals in terms of preventing osteoporosis-related fractures. In addition to bone density measurement, risk factors are also considered in the diagnosis. In addition, it is necessary to check the level of vitamin D in the blood and, in some cases, to evaluate some markers that show bone formation destruction in urine and blood ”.
Exercise is a Must for Strengthening Bones
Stating that the construction of the bone starts in the mother’s womb, Dr. “An important part of it completes its development in the twenties,” said Mustafa. Bone mass reaches its maximal level when bone size growth and mineral accumulation are completed and stabilized. This is called peak bone mass. This mass remains unchanged from the late thirties through the early forties. Loss begins after adulthood, when the bone turnover is in balance. Exercise is important in terms of providing and maintaining peak bone mass, preventing falls and fractures by providing increase in condition, flexibility and strength. In general, exercises such as walking, weight exercises, aerobics, tennis, pilates are recommended. Any of these exercises should be done 3-4 days a week for 30-60 minutes. Lifelong regular walking exercises, several minutes of back and posture exercises are recommended most days of the week. Patients with advanced osteoporosis should avoid movements and exercises such as leaning forward or even sideways to carry weight. Because pushing, pulling, lifting and bending create forces that compress the spine and cause fractures. “
The Inseparable Duo for Bone Health; Calcium and Vitamin D
Stating that nutrition is important for our bones, Romatem Kocaeli Hospital Dietician Tuğçe Şengül Karahancı said, “When we think of what we need to support bone health, most of us think of calcium. The daily need for calcium, which is 1000 mg in adult men, is approximately 1200 mg in adult women and elderly individuals. If we look at calcium sources, the first row will undoubtedly be the milk, yoghurt, ayran, kefir and cheese group. Although not as rich as this group, green leafy vegetables, hazelnuts-almonds and legumes can also be considered as sources of calcium.
Vitamin D is needed for the absorption of dietary calcium. For this reason, calcium and vitamin D are seen as an inseparable duo. In vitamin D deficiency, calcium absorption in the intestine decreases and bone loss may accelerate. After being exposed to the sun for 15-20 minutes daily, the active vitamin D form will be produced with the skin. The elderly are in the risk group for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. As the conversion of vitamin D taken from the sun into active form decreases with old age, it is important to use supplements under the consultation of the physician. The daily vitamin D requirement in the elderly is 400IU. In case of deficiency and insufficiency, it should not be consumed over 2000 IU per day. As a result, calcium and vitamin D should be provided adequately, alcohol and smoking should be avoided, salt intake and tea and coffee consumption should be limited. “
1 serving calcium content of foods:
1 cup (200 ml) skim milk: 400 mg calcium
5 tablespoons (225 g) of yogurt: 400 mg of calcium
1 cup (200 ml) milk: 300 mg calcium
30 g parmesan cheese: 300 mg calcium
30 g cheese: 200 mg calcium
75 g radish: 100 mg calcium
15 medium almonds (30 g): 100 mg calcium
90 g broccoli: 50 g calcium
70 g kale: 50 g calcium
1 medium orange: 50 g calcium
6 tablespoons (50 g / cooked) dried beans: 38 mg calcium
1 serving of vitamin D contents of foods:
Burns Uskumru (100g): 352 IU
Grilled Sardines (100g): 284 IU
Egg (50g): 36 IU
* Dairy products and cereals enriched with vitamin D can also be used.