prof. Dr. Esin Korkut stated that the most consumed cereals in the world are wheat, rice and corn and said, “Gluten is a vegetable protein widely used in food processing to give the dough in cereals, including rye and barley, the desired cooking properties, taste and smell. Gluten is associated with various diseases, especially celiac. Celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy are the most well-known problems. The prevalence of these diseases in the population is known as 1 percent, 0.63 to 6 percent and 0.1 to 0.6 percent, respectively. Neuropsychiatric diseases such as gluten ataxia and gluten-related schizophrenia, which are of autoimmune origin such as celiac, and dermatitis herpetiformis (Duhring’s disease) are classified as a separate group in some publications.


Pointing out that wheat allergy is defined as an immunological reaction against wheat proteins, Prof. Dr. Korkut continued:

“Depending on the route of exposure to the allergen and the underlying immunological mechanisms, it is classified as a classic food allergy that affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract, or respiratory tract. Wheat-induced anaphylaxis; occupational asthma (baker’s asthma), rhinitis and urticaria. Symptoms develop within minutes or hours following wheat ingestion or exposure. The diagnosis is made by skin and blood tests, and the treatment is not to take wheat and other gluten-containing grains. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity is an irritable bowel disease (irritable bowel) symptoms and extra-intestinal findings, which, unlike celiac and wheat allergies, do not have an autoimmune or allergic origin, appear a few hours or days after gluten ingestion, resolve rapidly with gluten withdrawal, and recur immediately after gluten loading. a condition characterized by Irritable bowel syndrome, similar to gastrointestinal symptoms, may include abdominal pain, bloating, bowel habit abnormalities (diarrhea or constipation), nausea, belching, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and aphthous stomatitis.


prof. Dr. Korkut said, “Even in the absence of digestive symptoms, extra-intestinal symptoms that may be the only sign of non-celiac gluten sensitivity are headache, migraine, fatigue, fibromyalgia, joint and muscle pain, numbness in the legs or arms, tingling, dermatitis (eczema or skin rash), atopic disorders. , allergy, depression, anxiety, iron deficiency anemia, folate deficiency, asthma, rhinitis, eating disorders or autoimmune diseases. Extraintestinal manifestations include non-celiac gluten sensitivity; It has been reported that some of them may have neuropsychiatric disorders, schizophrenia, autism, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, possibly immune-mediated, appears to be more common than celiac disease and its frequency is estimated to be 6 to 10 times higher. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity has been hypothesized as a mechanism underlying symptom formation in irritable bowel syndrome patients. Gluten has been shown to alter intestinal barrier functions in patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea. As with people with celiac disease, treatment is a gluten-free diet. Although celiac disease requires lifelong adherence to a strict gluten-free diet, it is not yet known whether gluten sensitivity is a permanent or temporary condition.

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