Hydrocephalus, which starts in the mother’s womb before birth and can occur with midline anomalies, can cause head circumference to grow because the skull bones have not yet closed. Providing information about the symptoms and treatment methods of hydrocephalus disease, Beykent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Brain and Nerve Surgery Dr. Lecturer Member Alev Güner stated that the main principle in treatment is to utilize medical or surgical applications to stop the cause that started the event and to reduce the high pressure.
Stating that hydrocephalus can develop congenitally and acquired, Dr. Lecturer Member Alev Güner said, “It is a medical term that indicates the increase in volume and pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid produced from special structures in the brain tissue and transferred from the structures surrounding the brain tissue to the venous system. It can develop congenitally and acquired. “There are two main types called occlusive and related” he said.
Dr. Güner stated that the examination of Hydrocephalus disease can develop in three ways with the increase in pressure and volume, “The change that increases the production (such as Choroid plexus papilloma), the obstacle in the cerebrospinal fluid circulation pathways can be congenital and acquired. Fluid flow is prevented by infection or tumor development. “There is a situation that prevents the absorption of cerebrospinal fluid, that is, a previous central nervous system infection or a vascular disorder that will cause subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Dr. Alev Güner said, “This situation is easily detected by ultrasound during pregnancy follow-up.
He said that infection, bleeding, or tumoral developments that put pressure on the cerebrospinal fluid circulation pathways before the skull bones fully unite after birth may cause hydrocephalus and cause enlargement of the head, ”he said, adding that the disease can be detected by observation or head circumference measurement.
Stating that other visible changes in children are the crossing of the eyes or the constant downward gaze as the ‘setting sun’ and are easily noticed, Güner said, “In the pre-speech period, children constantly move their hands towards their heads due to headache.
Vomiting may occur during this period. These vomits are generally frequent and gushing and are not directly related to nutrition. In these cases, the width of the brain cavities can be easily determined by ultrasound. Since the increase in intracranial pressure will not lead to enlargement of the head circumference after the skull bones are closed, headache, vomiting and cross eyes are more prominent. “The increase in cerebrospinal fluid pressure causes various changes by preventing the development of brain tissue,” he said.
Dr. Alev Güner said, “In adulthood, the reasons are almost the same. Strictures obstructing the flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid are related to the structures with anatomical cavities. The diagnostic method is computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
The main principle in treatment is to use medical or surgical applications to stop the cause that started the event and to reduce the high pressure. Drugs that reduce cerebrospinal fluid production may be useful in limited situations. In surgical treatment, it is the main principle to provide a conduction system (Shunt application) that will transfer the fluid with increased pressure to another part of the body or to connect the high-pressure fluid to the conduction system of the brain with low pressure by surgically combining the anatomical pathways.