Faculty of Dentistry Vice Dean Orthodontics Specialist Dr. Lecturer Şirin Hatipoğlu said, “First of all, we can divide the causes of tooth crowding and jaw disorders as general and leukal. Heredity, congenital anomalies, trauma, functional disorders and bad habits are listed among general factors. Heredity is one of the most important factors that affect the development of skeletal and dental anomalies. Hereditary anomalies are anomalies due to changes in genetic characteristics that are passed on to the next generation by genes. We know that 80 percent inheritance is effective in the formation of some skeletal disorders. Especially the position disorders of the lower and upper jaws in the anteroposterior direction are closely related to heredity. For this reason, it is recommended that orthodontic examinations should also start at an early age ”.

Stating that as a result of bad habits such as finger / lip sucking, nail biting, tongue pushing, the normal functional structure deteriorates and a pathological structure occurs, Hatipoğlu said, “Finger sucking can cause severe dental and skeletal problems. Finger sucking that continues after the age of three is considered pathological and intervention is essential. Successful interventions can be made with mobile or fixed habit breakers.

Anomalies may also occur due to functional disorders such as mouth breathing and wrong baby feeding. Especially mouth breathing can cause permanent changes on both teeth and jaw facial skeleton. Therefore, early diagnosis of mouth breathing, correction and prevention of dental / skeletal changes that have occurred are very important, “he said.

Hatipoğlu, congenital cleft lip and palate, as well as congenital anomalies that occurred during the birth of the baby in the mother’s womb; Stating that there are anomalies due to trauma that occurred during or after birth, and that endocrine imbalance or nutritional disorders may also cause irregularities in teeth and jaws, Hatipoğlu continued his words as follows:

“Although its prevalence and severity tends to decrease over time, deciduous tooth decay continues to be the main public health problem of many countries. If this place cannot be protected due to the premature loss of milk teeth, tooth alignment disorders occur. Teeth located on either side of the extracted deciduous tooth cavity tend to slide and topple towards the extraction cavity.

Likewise, the tooth in the opposite arc can be elongated. This situation causes “symptomatic” space constriction due to the shortening of the arc length and length. This causes a non-aesthetic smile appearance due to the change in the driving direction of the permanent teeth or the obstruction of the permanent teeth and the impacted permanent tooth.

Şirin Hatipoğlu stated that the loss of early milk teeth has the potential to cause orthodontic disorders or increases the need for orthodontic treatment with many studies and said, “In addition to fulfilling the chewing function of milk teeth, they also serve as natural placeholders. For this reason, it is very important to preserve the original size of deciduous teeth. Caries, inadequate or inaccurate clinical practices are among the most important leukal factors causing malocclusion. When decay occurs, the original size of the milk tooth cannot be preserved. It is important for the decayed tooth to be restored to its original tooth size, for this reason.

Otherwise, the teeth located in front of or behind the decayed tooth will slide towards the cavity and tend to create perplexity and bite disorder. Decays in milk teeth and improper restorations made on milk teeth cause the original size of the tooth not to be preserved, loss of place and perplexity.

If there is no chance of restoration to a decayed milk tooth, it is necessary to take an extraction and then apply a placeholder immediately. Thus, the maintenance and protection of deciduous teeth during the transition from the deciduous period to the permanent tooth period is especially recommended in order to prevent loss of arch length perimeter, limit the formation of final malocclusion and minimize the need for orthodontic treatment that may occur.

Stating that leucal etiological factors cause acquired orthodontic malocclusion, Hatipoğlu said, “Preventive treatment is very important in order to prevent the occurrence of acquired orthodontic malocclusion. Well, we cannot prevent tooth crowding and jaw disorder from occurring. In general, we can divide orthodontic treatments into two groups as mobile and fixed.

Movable orthodontic treatment; It is a form of treatment in which various mobile devices are used in order to prevent problems that may develop due to factors such as bad habits, finger sucking, abnormal swallowing, to make room for permanent teeth or to correct simple dental disorders. It is applied to pediatric patients between the ages of 8-11 on average, with mixed dentition period ”.

Stating that fixed orthodontic treatment is performed with brackets that are attached to the teeth and not removed during the treatment and the wires passing through these braces, Hatipoğlu concluded his words as follows:

“There are different types of brackets including metal and porcelain. As an alternative to the standard metal brackets we always use, porcelain brackets have been produced to be used in adult patients and provide a more aesthetic appearance. Fixed orthodontic treatment can be applied to individuals of all ages with healthy teeth and gums. In orthopedic treatments to be applied using only growth and development forces, patients should be in an active growth and development period.

In order to preserve the results obtained with the treatment, after the fixed treatment, long-term protection should be made with various reinforcement devices and / or wires that are not visible from the outside. Apart from these treatment options, orthodontic treatments with transparent plaques have emerged recently. However, let’s not forget that the most appropriate treatment method and option for the patient will be recommended by the doctor who will do the treatment. Each patient’s situation is unique and different. “

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